ISF Mistral-C

Posted By on 20 juli 2016

Der Mistral-C war 1974 eines der ersten Segelflugzeuge, das nach den Regeln der damals neuen Wettbewerbsklasse Clubklasse entworfen wurde. Es basiert auf dem Strauber Mistral, erhielt jedoch eine neue Flügelgeometrie mit geringerer Streckung, ein gedämpftes Höhenleitwerk und wurde aus moderneren Verbundwerkstoffen gebaut. Beide Flugzeugtypen wurden in Deutschland konstruiert. Insgesamt wurden mehr als 75 Mistral-C hergestellt.

Unmittelbarer Vorläufer des Mistral-C war das Standardklasse-Segelflugzeug Strauber Mistral, das von Manfred Strauber, Alois Fries, Hartmut Frommhold und Horst Gaber konstruiert wurde. Die Konstruktionsarbeiten begannen im Januar 1970 und der Erstflug des Mistral fand im Juli 1975 statt. Eine Serienfertigung des ursprünglichen Mistral war nicht geplant.
Im Oktober 1974 begannen Strauber und Frommhold unter dem neuen Namen Ingenieur-Büro Strauber-Frommhold GmbH (ISF) mit der Konstruktion eines neuen Flugzeugmodells, dem Mistral-C. Dieses Flugzeug sollte als eines der ersten die Regularien der damals neu eingeführten FAI Clubklasse erfüllen. Der Erstflug fand am 21. Oktober 1976 statt.
Bis Anfang 1980 wurden vom ISF 25 Flugzeuge gefertigt. Die Anzahl der nach Umfirmierung zum Mistral-Flugzeugbau bis zur ersten Jahreshälfte 1981 gebauten Flugzeuge ist unbekannt. Valentin Flugzeugbau fertigte bis Anfang 1984 im Werk der Mistral-Flugzeugbau 50 weitere Mistral-C.
Der Strauber Mistral war ein Schulterdecker aus glasfaserverstärktem Kunststoff (GFK) mit 15-Meter Spannweite und einem T-Leitwerk. Die Flügelfläche betrug 9,4 m² bei einer Flügelstreckung von 23,9. Die Tragfläche besaß eine Pfeilung von 0,4° bei 1/4 der Profiltiefe. Die V-Stellung war ebenfalls 0,4°. Als Flügelprofile wurden an der Wurzel Wortmann FX-66-S-196 und an den Flächenenden FX-66-S-161 verwendet. Als Material für die Tragflächen wurde ein GFK-Balsa-Sandwich verwendet, die Querruder bestanden aus GFK in Verbindung mit Polymethacrylimid-(PMI)-Schaum. Die Schempp-Hirth-Bremsklappen aus Aluminium fuhren nur nach oben aus. Für das Pendelleitwerk wurde ebenfalls PMI-gefülltes GFK verwendet. Der Halbschalen-Rumpf des Mistral bestand aus einem GFK-Balsa-Sandwich, die Haube war einteilig. Das einrädrige Fahrwerk war einziehbar, am Heck wurde ein Schleifsporn verwendet. Das beste Gleitverhältnis des Strauber Mistral lag bei 39:1, das geringste Sinken bei 0,6 m/s.
Die Hauptunterschiede beim Mistral-C betreffen die Tragflächen und die verwendeten Materialien. Die Flügelfläche wurde bei gleicher Spannweite vergrößert, so dass Flügelstreckung und damit die Leistung verringert wurden. Die neuen Tragflächen bestanden aus anderen Wortmann-Profilen, die Pfeilung betrug 1,0° und die V-Stellung 4,30°. In Tragflächen und Leitwerk wurde der GFK-Balsa-Sandwich durch einen GFK-PVC-Schaum-Sandwich ersetzt, die Querruder und der Rumpf wurden vollständig aus GFK gefertigt. Statt eines Pendelleitwerks wurde ein gedämpftes Leitwerk verwendet. Die Haube ist seitlich angeschlagen. Die später von Valentin hergestellten Mistral-Cs waren nahezu identisch, lediglich von einer etwas geringeren V-Stellung der Tragflächen wird berichtet.
Bei den ersten Internationalen Clubklasse-Meisterschaften 1979 in Schweden konnte ein Mistral-C Platz 3 von 33 erreichen.
Im Jahr 2010 gab es in Europa 54 zivil registrierte Mistral-C, 2012 waren weitere 3 im Vereinigten Königreich registriert.

Share This:

Spatiotemporal pattern

Posted By on 20 juli 2016

Spatialtemporal patterns are patterns that occur in a wide range of natural phenoma and are characterized by a spatial and a temporal patterning. The general rules of pattern formation hold. In contrast to “static”, pure spatial patterns, the full complexity of spatiotemporal patterns can only be recognized over time. Any kind of traveling wave is a good example of a spatiotemporal pattern. Besides the shape and amplitude of the wave (spatial part), its time-varying position (and possibly shape) in space is an essential part of the entire pattern.

The distinction between spatial and spatio-temporal patterns in nature is not clear-cut because a static, invariable pattern will never occur in the strict sense. Even rock formations will slowly change on a time-scale of 10,000s up millions of years, therefore the distinction lies in the time scale of change in relation to human experience. Already the snapshot state of a dune will usually be taken as an example of a purely spatial pattern although this is clearly not the case. It is thus apt to say that spatiotemporal patterns in nature are the rule rather than the exception.
Many hydrodynamical systems show s.t. pattern formation:
Any type of reaction-diffusion system that produces spatial patterns will also, due to the time-dependency of both reactions and diffusion, produce spatiotemporal patterns.
Neural networks, both artificial and natural, produce a virtually unbounded variety of s.t. patterns, both in sensory perception, learning, thinking and reasoning as well as in spontaneous activity. It has for example been demonstrated that spiral waves, signatures of many excitable systems can occur in neocortical preparations.
All communication, language, relies on spatiotemporal encoding of information, producing and transmitting sound variations or any type of signal i.e. single building blocks of information that are varied over time. -Even though written language appears to exist only as a (2D) spatial concatenation of letters – strings, it must be decoded sequentially over time. Any kind of language that is understood by organisms is thus eventually a transcoding of neural s.t. signals and will – in successful communication – evoke similar patterns of neural activity in the recipient as they existed in the sender. For example, the warning call of a bird when it perceives a predator will produce a similar type and degree of alarmedness (eventually a certain kind of neural activity pattern) in other individuals even though they have not yet seen or heard the potential attacker.
Even artificial languages, e.g. computer languages, are not read and interpreted in one step, but sequentially, thus, their meaningfully arranged vocabulary (e.g. “computer code”) can be seen as a s.t. pattern.
As a particular type of language, the “static” (neglecting random transcription errors, recombination and mutation) DNA and its transcription pattern over time yields biologically essential s.t. patterns. Gene regulatory networks are responsible for regulation of the time course of transcription and thus the gene/protein expression levels which can be analyzed using expression profiling.

Share This:

Merry Christmas (Mariah Carey album)

Posted By on 20 juli 2016

Merry Christmas is the first Christmas album, and the fourth studio album, by American singer and songwriter Mariah Carey. Released by Columbia Records on November 1, 1994, the album features cover versions of popular Christmas tunes and original material. Carey worked with Walter Afanasieff, with whom she wrote all of the original tracks, as well as producing Carey’s interpretations of the covered material. The album contains a contemporary holiday theme, and featured “authentic, gospel flavored background vocals”. The album received generally positive reviews and became a worldwide success. Critics praised Carey’s uplifting and flavored vocals, as well as her skilled songwriting alongside Afanasieff. Three singles were released from the album, of which All I Want for Christmas Is You went on to become one of the best-selling singles of all time.
Merry Christmas was released at the peak of the initial stretch of Carey’s career, between Music Box (1993) and Daydream (1995). The album produced the worldwide classic single, “All I Want for Christmas Is You”, which became the best-selling holiday ringtone in the US. The album has sold 5,500,000 copies in the United States as of December 2015 according to Nielsen SoundScan, and has been certified five-times Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) for shipment of five million copies in the United States. In Japan, Merry Christmas has sold 2,500,000 copies and is the fourth best-selling album of all time by a non-Asian solo artist, behind Carey’s other release #1’s (1998), Whitney Houston’s The Bodyguard and Carey’s Daydream. Merry Christmas has sold 15 million copies worldwide and is the best-selling Christmas album of all time.
A Deluxe Anniversary Edition was released on October 23, 2015.

Carey has expressed her belief in God and her connection between music and spirituality, and felt the album was finally a way to portray her mysticism into music. After the success of Carey’s previous effort, Music Box, there was speculation of a new project in the works; however it was not until October 1994, only one month before the album’s release, that Billboard announced Carey would be releasing a holiday album for the Christmas season. Initially, critics were shocked; they did not know how Carey would fare as an entertainer, as she had previously only been viewed as a pop star. Nevertheless, Carey, unaffected by the speculation, continued working on, and promoting the album in high spirits, confident in her work. The idea proved to be wise, earning Carey recognition in various markets including Christian radio and contemporary R&B stations, as well as extended her fame in Japan, where the album experienced much of its success.
Throughout the album’s development, Carey worked extensively with Walter Afanasieff, with whom she collaborated extensively on Emotions (1991) and Music Box (1993). Together, they wrote all three of the album’s original songs, as well as producing most of the traditional tracks. “All I Want for Christmas Is You”, the album’s debut single, was written by Carey and Afanasieff, which was sent to top-forty and adult contemporary stations, with the video having been filmed the year before. Another track they wrote, “Miss You Most (At Christmas Time)”, was sent to R&B stations, with “Jesus Born on This Day”, another original song, being sent to Christian and gospel radio stations around the world.
Additionally, Carey recorded a cover of “Christmas (Baby Please Come Home)” by Darlene Love, as well as classics such as “Silent Night”, “O Holy Night” and “Joy to the World”. The latter song, which was used as a promotional single, was remixed several times and sent to various clubs; adding to the album’s range of listeners. Record producer and composer, Loris Holland, co-produced some of the albums gospel flavored tracks, including “Silent Night”, where he arranged the backing vocals and synthesizers. Carey’s rendition of “Santa Claus Is Coming to Town”, was deemed as “one of the more playful tracks on the album”, alongside “Christmas (Baby Please Come Home)”.
Merry Christmas boasted a variety of musical arrangements, sounds and genres. Carey’s goal was to provide an album that would have a “Christmas feel”, providing a mixture of soulful tracks, as well as fun and joyous holiday treats. The song “Jesus, Oh What a Wonderful Child”, was described as an original track that “really took flight”. The song was recorded in a church, with many live back-up singers and children playing tambourines and other melodious instruments. The goal was to produce a “real church flavored song”, in which Afanasieff played the keyboards and allowed Carey’s voice to “cut loose”. According to Chris Nickson, Carey’s love of gospel music came through on the track, writing, “[she] led the band without pushing herself forward, letting the song develop and work out, trading lines with the chorus until, after the crescendo, the musicians moved into a fast double time to the end.”
“You have to have a nice balance between standard Christian hymns and fun songs. It was definitely a priority for me to write at least a few new songs, but for the most part people really want to hear the standards at Christmas, no matter how good a new song is.”
The album’s lead track, “All I Want for Christmas Is You”, was described as an “up-tempo love song, one that could have easily been written for Tommy Mottola.” Another one of the album’s original tracks was, “Miss You Most (At Christmas Time)”, which was very different from its whimsical predecessor. The song was described as a “sad ballad”, in line with many of Carey’s previous hit singles. The song featured a synthesized orchestra, including keyboard notes courtesy of Afanasieff, during which Carey would sing to her “long-gone lover, crystallizing the way that Christmas brought memories of the past into focus.” According to Nickson, it was “Jesus Born on This Day”, that was the most impressive original track on the album. It was described as a “full-blown production number”, which again featured synthesized orchestra, as well as a live children’s choir. The song’s tune was described as “solemn and hymn-like, but the arrangement, oddly, made it less religious and rather more glitzy, behind the lyrics that overtly praised Jesus.”
The album garnered generally positive reviews from music critics. Barry Schwartz, editor of Stylus Magazine, gave the album a very positive review, praising Carey’s vocals, the album’s authenticity and songwriting. Aside from the album, Schwartz lauded “All I Want for Christmas Is You”: “To say this song is an instant classic somehow doesn’t capture its amazingicity; it’s a modern standard: joyous, exhilarating, and loud, with even a hint of longing (ooh longing!). She sings, ‘I don’t want a lot for Christmas / I won’t even wish for snow,’ such a beautiful phrase delivered with full sincerity over rolling pianos, spine-squashing tympanis, philharmonic strings, and a quasi-wall of sound—and Mariah’s gorgeous voice bursts through it all. Rats, why haven’t I been celebrating Christmas?!” J.D. Considine from The Baltimore Sun said that the album “may look like just another attempt to cash in on Christmas cheer, but is actually the work of someone who genuinely loves this music. Granted, Carey’s gospel inclinations come through a lot stronger than might be expected on traditional tunes like ‘Silent Night’, but that hardly diminishes the effect of her performance; in fact, her soulful ornamentation adds oomph to the reading of ‘O Holy Night’. But the album’s real strength is the conviction she brings to otherwise corny fare like ‘Santa Claus Is Comin’ to Town’, while the way she augments ‘Joy to the World’ with a bit of the Three Dog Night hit is pure genius.”
The album received a less enthusiastic review from Roch Parisien of AllMusic, who praised “All I Want for Christmas Is You”, writing, “On the positive side, her co-penned (one of three) ‘All I Want for Christmas Is You’ is a well-crafted Phil Spector tribute, with Beach Boys-style harmonies, jangling bells, and a sleigh-ride pace, injecting one of the few bits of exuberant fun in this otherwise vanilla set.” However, he was more critical of Carey’s take on “O Holy Night” and “Joy to the World”, writing, “Pretensions to high opera on ‘O Holy Night’ and a horrid dance club take on ‘Joy to the World’.” Steve Morse from The Boston Globe commented “Her early albums were often polished to a fault, but she cuts loose with unbridled soul on the new Christmas disc. Oddly enough, it may be her best album. She blends original songs (such as ‘All I Want for Christmas Is You’, which debuted in video form on MTV [at the time]) with traditional carols (‘Silent Night’ and ‘Joy to the World’) and even Phil Spector’s Yuletide classic, ‘Christmas (Baby Please Come Home)’.” Jon Pareles of The New York Times wrote “There are gospelly versions of familiar carols like ‘Silent Night’, dramatic ballads like her own ‘Miss You Most (At Christmas Time)’, and uptempo imitations, with chimes, of Phil Spector’s 1963 Christmas album, like ‘Santa Claus Is Comin’ to Town’. Regardless of backup, Ms. Carey oversings, glutting songs with her vocal tics—like sliding down from the note above the melody note—and turning expressions of devotion into narcissistic displays.”
Merry Christmas debuted at number thirty on the US Billboard 200 with 45,000 copies sold in its first week. In its fifth week, the album peaked at number three, with sales of 208,000 copies, but experienced its highest sales in its sixth week (when it was at number six), with another 500,000 copies sold. The album was the second best-selling holiday album that year with a total of 1,859,000 copies sold. It remained in the top twenty for eight weeks and on the Billboard 200 for thirteen weeks, re-entering the chart three times; peaking at number 149 the first time, 115 the second and at 61 the third (it has spent a total of fifty-five weeks on the chart). On January 30, 2003, Merry Christmas was certified five-times Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) for shipment of five million copies in the US. As of December 2015, the album has sold 5,500,000 copies in the US and is one of the best-selling holiday albums in the United States. In Europe, Merry Christmas experienced success, being certified gold in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and United Kingdom. In Australia, the album was certified six-times platinum, denoting shipments of 420,000 copies and finishing 11th on the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA) 1994 End of Year Chart.
Outside the United States, the album experienced its highest sales in Japan, where it sold 2.5 million copies and became the fourth best-selling album by a non-Asian solo artist. Additionally, the album’s lead single “All I Want for Christmas Is You” was certified the “Million” award, The single achieved similar success around the world, where it reached the top-five position in most countries, as well as re-entering many times throughout the years. In the US, “All I Want for Christmas Is You” is one of the few songs in recent years to be considered a classic and is the only holiday song and ringtone to reach multi-platinum status in the US. Merry Christmas has sold 15 million copies worldwide, and is the best-selling Christmas album of all time.
Carey is currently developing a musical film based on Merry Christmas. The plot revolves around a small town—perhaps not unlike Carey’s hometown of Huntington, New York—where a ruthless developer wants to turn the land into a large shopping plaza. “Mariah doesn’t want to let that happen,” says her producing partner Benny Medina. “Her character uses song and love to keep the Christmas spirit alive.”
According to Carey, the script will be written by High School Musical writer Peter Barsocchini, but is still in its early stages of production. However, Carey gave Daily News a few more details regarding the project, saying, “Since I recorded the Christmas album, I’ve always wanted to make a movie to go with it, something that people could watch and hear and enjoy every year. I’m into it. I’m all about the holiday season.”
Credits adapted from AllMusic.
*sales figures based on certification alone ^shipments figures based on certification alone xunspecified figures based on certification alone

Share This:

Battle of Logiebride

Posted By on 20 juli 2016

The Battle of Logiebride or Logie-Riach, also known as a Tumult in Ross was more of a small skirmish rather than an actual battle. The disturbance is said to have taken place on 4 February 1597 at the Logie Candlemas market near Conan House (a mile south-west of Conon Bridge) between men of the Clan Mackenzie against men of the Clan Munro and the Bain family of Tulloch Castle.

John MacLeod, brother (a record of the Privy Council, dated 25 Dec1595, states that he was the younger son of the Laird of Raasay, and names him Iain MacCaluim MacGillichaluim. The laird of Raasay at that time was Calum Og, son of Calum Garbh, son of Alasdair) of the chief of the Clan MacLeod of Raasay was on the rampage in Easter Ross, with a small party of men. He was confronted by John Bain, brother of the chief of the Clan Bain of Tulloch Castle. In the ensuing battle men from the Clan Munro sided with Bain while men from the Clan Mackenzie sided with MacLeod.
The earliest account of the Battle of Logiebride was that by Sir Robert Gordon (1580–1656) who was living at the time of the battle, in his book the History of the Earldom of Sutherland written in about 1625. His account is repeated in the book Conflicts of the Clans which was published by the Foulis press in 1764.
Gordon states that in 1597 an “accident” happened in Ross at a fair in Lagavraid which almost put all the neighboring counties of Ross into combustion. He states that the quarrel was between John Macgillichallum brother to the (Laird of Raasay) and Alexander Bain (brother of Duncan Bain of Tulloch). Gordon goes on to state that the Munros assisted Bain and the Mackenzies assisted John Macgillichallum, who was killed along with John Mac-Murdo Mac-William, and three others of the Clan MacKenzie. Alexander Bain escaped but on his side John Munro of Culcraggie, with his brother, Hutcheon Munro, and John Munro Robertson were killed. The Munros and Mackenzies then prepared to invade each other but were reconciled by friends and neighbors.
The Wardlaw manuscript was written in about 1674 by James Fraser. Fraser states that the battle took place on the 4 February 1597 at the Candlemas fair called Bridfaire (St Bridget’s Fair) in a town called Lagy Vrud (Logy, Conan), in Ross upon the river of Connin. The quarrel began between John Mackillchallim, a Mackleud (MacLeod), brother to the Laird of Rasey and another gentleman, John Bain, brother of Duncan Bain, Baron of Tulloch, near Dingwall. Fraser states that John Mackillchallum was a vile, flgitious, proflagat fellow, and ravaging robber, picking quarrells with all men, he frequented markets for the purpose of taking advantage of poor chapmen and merchants, pillaging and robbing their shops without resistance. He was also a relation of the Mackenzies and was patronized by them. At this fair he had 6 or 7 bold followers with him. John Bain, a gallant courageous gentlemen, saw him abuse a merchants wife and take away his goods by violence. Bain challenged him, commanding him to give it back or he would make him do it. After verba verbera from words to swords, John Bain draws upon him and gave him two or three deadly wounds. Three Mackenzies were also killed. Upon John Bain’s side were killed John Monro of Cularge, and Hugh, his brother and John Monro Robertson. The chase run down the firth towards the mill of Arkaig and the wood of Milchaich, where many were wounded and some slain. John Bain with his Fraser amour bearer withdrew and deliberately escaped to Lovat. The next morning Fraser, Lord Lovat dispatched James Fraser of Phopachy to King James, being then at Falkland, with an account of what had happened. The King sent John Bain full remission and personal protection and a warrand and power to charge the Laird Mackenzie of Kintail with intercommoning, and all the accomplices of John Mackilchallim.
A Munro family tree dating from 1734 only mentions two casualties and agrees with the original account written by Sir Robert Gordon that John Munro of Culcraggie and Hutcheon Munro were killed in the battle. The Munro tree of 1734 does not mention the thirteen Munro casualties mentioned by historian Alexander Mackenzie in his books the History of the Mackenzies (1894) and the History of the Munros of Foulis (1898).
Historian John Anderson published an account of the battle in his book Historical Account of the Clan Fraser in 1825. Anderson quotes from the MSS History of the Frasers (Wardlaw Manuscript c.1674, written by James Fraser of Wardlaw) and the Mackenzie MSS (Applecross MS c.1667, written by John Mackenzie of Applecross). Anderson’s account is very similar to that given in James Fraser’s Wardlaw MS. Anderson also states that a different colour is given in the account by the Mackenzies, but they agree on the main points.
Alexander Mackenzie later published an account of the battle in his book The History of the Mackenzies (1894) and a similar account in his book the The History of the Munros of Fowlis (1898). In The History of Mackenzies, historian Alexander Mackenzie quotes his account of the battle “from family MSS” and Sir Robert Gordon’s “Earldom of Sutherland”. However the account he goes on to give is completely different from the account that is actually given by Sir Robert Gordon. The family MSS is believed to have been the Applecross MS written by John Mackenzie of Applecross in 1667.
Alexander Mackenzie says that a “disturbance” took place at Logie-Riach, on the banks of the river Conon on the 4th of February 1597. It was fought between the Mackenzies against the Bain’s and Munros, in which several of the latter were slain. Mackenzie states that a difference arose between John MacGilliechallum brother of MacLeod, Laird of Raasay and the Bain’s about the lands of Torridon. Bain attended the Candlemas market at Logie with a large following of armed men which included Bain’s and a considerable number of Munros. Mackenzie states that John MacGilliechallum came to the fair too and while he was buying something Bain came up behind him and without warning struck him on the head with a sword killing him instantly. Mackenzie goes on to say that one of the Mackenzies tried to interfere but no sooner had he opened his mouth that he was run through the body by one of the Bain’s. Mackenzie states that the war cry of the Clan Mackenzie was raised and the Bain’s and Munros then fled followed by a band of Mackenzies, who slaughtered everyone they overtook. Mackenzie goes on to say that two Mackenzies named Ian Dubh MacCoinnich Mhic Mhurchaidh and Ian Gallda Mac Fhionnla Dhuibh having learned of the cause of the Munros flight slew no less than thirteen of them between Logie and the wood of Millechaich. Mackenzie concludes that most of the Bains were killed and that the Munros lost no less than fifty men.
A recent published account of the battle was written by Alan Mackenzie of the Clan Mackenzie Society USA and Canada, in his book, A History of the Mackenzies, and is almost identical to the earliest account written by Sir Robert Gordon, a contemporary in his book the History of the Earldom of Sutherland written in about 1625.

Share This:

Galgenberg (Bad Freienwalde)

Posted By on 20 juli 2016

Der Galgenberg ist eine Anhöhe südlich von Bad Freienwalde (Oder) in Brandenburg. Auf dem Galgenberg befindet sich ein Aussichtsturm und ein jüdischer Friedhof. Der Galgenberg liegt in der Verlängerung der Melcherstraße am südlichen Stadtrand von Bad Freienwalde. Die Anhöhe hat eine Höhe von 110 Meter.

Die Anhöhe wurde im Jahre 1603 das erste Mal als Galgenberg erwähnt. Selbst im 18. Jahrhundert sind noch Hinrichtungen auf dieser Anhöhe nachweisbar. Es war der städtische Richtplatz von Bad Freienwalde. Später wurde hier Glassand für die Porzellanproduktion abgebaut. Bis zum Jahre 1904 wurde in einer Grube Braunkohle abgebaut.
Der Prediger Johann Wilhelm Melcher beantragte im Jahr 1859 die Erbauung eines Turms auf dem Galgenberg. Der Galgenberg war damals schon beliebt bei Wanderern, von hier hatte man eine gute Fernsicht. Etwa zwanzig Jahre später wurde der Turm erbaut. Der sollte gleichzeitig als Gefallenendenkmal der Kriege 1864 (Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg), 1866 (Deutscher Krieg) und 1870/71 (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg) dienen. Am 18. Mai 1879 wurde der Turm dann als „Kriegerdenkmal auf der Wilhelmshöhe“ eingeweiht. Der Galgenberg hieß wohl seit der Kaiserzeit Wilhelmshöhe. Zu Zeiten der DDR verfiel der Turm, ab 1990 wurde er saniert, am 2. Dezember 1995 wurde er neu eröffnet. Der Turm auf dem Galgenberg steht unter Denkmalschutz.
Der Turm ist 26 Meter hoch und aus rotem Ziegel erbaut. Über einem Fundament befindet sich ein achteckiger Sockel. Hier befinden sich Eisentafeln mi den Namen der Gefallenen der Kriege 1864, 1866 und 1870/71. Darüber folgt ein rundes glattes Turmteil, welches von einer Galerie abgeschlossen wird. Der Turmschaft über der Galerie ist mit Streben stark strukturiert. Über dem Turmschacht befindet sich die überkragende Aussichtsplattform.
Der jüdische Friedhof liegt an der nördlichen Seite des Galgenberges. Über einen kleinen Weg an der katholischen Kirche in der Goethestraße kann der 1690 errichtete Friedhof erreicht werden. Bis zum Jahre 1730 wurde der Friedhof auch von jüdischen Bürgern aus Wriezen genutzt. In der Pogromnacht 9./10. November 1938 wurde der Friedhof zerstört. Nach dem Krieg wurde der Friedhof geräumt. Im Jahre 1950 entstand ein Gedenkstein für die verstorbenen und vertriebenen jüdischen Bürger der Stadt Bad Freienwalde.
52.77868055555614.036463888889110Koordinaten: 52° 47′ N, 14° 2′ O

Share This:

Leonida Bissolati

Posted By on 20 juli 2016

Leonida Bissolati (né à Crémone, le 20 février 1857 et mort à Rome le 6 mars 1920) est un homme politique italien. C’est l’un des plus importants membres du mouvement socialiste italien, à cheval entre le XIXe siècle et XXe siècle.

Bissolati est le fils naturel, avec le nom de Leonida Bergamaschi, puis le fils adoptif à l’âge de 18 ans de Stefano Bissolati (né en 1823 à Rivarolo Fuori aujourd’hui Rivarolo Mantovano), qui était devenu prête très jeune et qui renonça à la prêtrise à l’âge de 37 ans devenant par la suite directeur de la bibliothèque communale de Crémone.
Il obtient son diplôme à 20 ans; à Bologne, avant d’adhérer au mouvement socialiste. Il devient ensuite conseiller communal à Crémone, d’abord dans le rang des radicaux, avant de se rapprocher des socialistes. Pendant 18 ans, à partir de 1880, il est adjoint à l’instruction. Dans sa ville, il exerce la profession d’avocat, publiant de nombreux articles dans des revues et des quotidiens.
Leonida Bissolati épouse Ginevra Coggi en 1885, qui meurt de tuberculose neuf ans plus tard. Par la suite, il a une compagne, Carolina Cassola, qu’il épouse en 1913.
Entre 1889 et 1895 il organise les agitations paysannes et les luttes sociales dans les campagnes. Bissolati créé en 1889 L’écho du peuple (L’eco del popolo) qui devient l’organe local du Parti socialiste italien (PSI), et publie une traduction partielle du Manifeste du Parti communiste. En 1896 il devient le directeur de l’ Avanti!, organe officiel du PSI, le laissant en 1903 pour le reprendre de 1908 à 1910.
En 1897 il est élu au parlement italien comme député dans le collège de Crémone. Étant favorable à la guerre de Libye, il démissionne de son poste de parlementaire socialiste en février 1912 et cinq mois plus tard, il est expulsé du parti avec Bonomi, Cabrini et Podrecca. Bissolati ne renonce pas pour autant à l’activité politique, et participe à la création du Parti socialiste réformiste italien avec Ivanoe Bonomi et Angiolo Cabrini.
Il devient ministre de l’assistance en 1916, dans le gouvernement de Paolo Boselli puis dans celui de Vittorio Emanuele Orlando. Cette fonction lui assure un contact direct avec les généraux italiens employés sur le front de la Première Guerre mondiale.
À la fin du conflit, lors des négociations du Traité de Versailles, Bissolati est l’un des rares en Italie à réclamer une application stricte du principe des nationalités, énoncé dans les Quatorze points de Wilson, alors que les nationalistes parlent de « victoire mutilée ». L’application du droit des peuples à disposer d’eux-mêmes conduirait Rome à renoncer à la Dalmatie, au protectorat sur l’Albanie et à l’annexion du Dodécanèse et du Haut-Adige : face à l’opposition d’Orlando et du ministre des Affaires étrangères Sidney Sonnino, il démissionne en décembre 1918, quittant la scène politique.
Il meurt à Rome en 1920 d’une infection à la suite d’une intervention chirurgicale.

Share This:

Chrystus w grobie

Posted By on 20 juli 2016

Chrystus w grobie (Ciało martwego Chrystusa w grobie) – obraz olejny Hansa Holbeina młodszego, namalowany na desce w latach 1521–1522. Ukazuje ciało martwego Chrystusa, złożone do grobu i noszące już cechy rozkładu. Dzieło przechowywane jest w Muzeum Sztuki w Bazylei.
Dzieło Holbeina przedstawia martwe ciało Chrystusa złożone w grobie po ukrzyżowaniu. O tym, że jest to Jezus, świadczą charakterystyczne rany na ciele – przekłute gwoździami dłonie i stopy oraz rana w boku, brakuje natomiast śladów po koronie cierniowej. Poza tym ciało nie posiada żadnych atrybutów boskości, wygląda jak zwłoki zwykłego człowieka, zamęczonego na śmierć. Na obrazie widać prawą połowę ciała martwego Jezusa, ciało jest nagie, przykrywa je jedynie biały materiał, pod którym zarysowane są genitalia. Zwłoki noszą już pierwsze ślady rozkładu – twarz, ręka i stopy nabrały sinozielonego zabarwienia, usta zmarłego są blade (według niektórych przekazów Holbein miał przy malowaniu Chrystusa wzorować się na ciele topielca, którego wyłowiono z Renu). Ciało Chrystusa jest niezwykle wychudzone, jego oczy i usta pozostają otwarte (jakby sugerowały, że pomimo śmierci, Jezus nadal patrzy i przemawia). Dłoń Jezusa znajduje się w miejscu oddzielającym prawą stronę obrazu od lewej, wszystkie palce są podkurczone, jedynie palec środkowy jest wyprostowany. Obraz Holbeina akcentuje nie boską, a ludzką naturę Chrystusa – przedstawia go w momencie, w którym zetknął się on z przeznaczoną każdemu człowiekowi śmiercią.
Obraz ma nietypowy, horyzontalny układ. Jego kształt sugeruje, że być może miał służyć jako ozdoba predelli. Jest to jednak wątpliwe ze względu na perspektywę, sprawiającą, że odbiorca powinien zapoznawać się z tym obrazem pod kątem. Obraz mógł być też samodzielnym dziełem lub być przeznaczony do umieszczenia w niszy grobowca.
Inspiracją do obrazu była zapewne twórczość Matthiasa Grünewalda i jego Ołtarz z Isenheim (1512–1515, Muzeum Unterlinden, Kolmar), a zwłaszcza predella do ołtarza, na której ukazane zostało złożenie Chrystusa do grobu. Ojciec Holbeina, Hans Holbein starszy, pracował do swojej śmierci w tym samym klasztorze, dla którego Grünewald namalował Ołtarz z Isenheim. Holbein młodszy mógł widzieć Ołtarz ze względu na niewielką odległość dzielącą Isenheim i Bazyleę, w której działał. Jednak Holbein młodszy, w przeciwieństwie do Grünewalda, w swoim obrazie przedstawiającym martwego Chrystusa, nie epatuje okrucieństwem i nie podkreśla jego ran.
Obraz Chrystus w grobie zrobił ogromne wrażenie na Fiodorze Dostojewskim podczas jego pobytu w Bazylei latem 1867 roku. Żona pisarza opisała to następująco:
Wstrząs wywołany widokiem obrazu był tak silny, że Anna Dostojewska musiała odciągnąć od niego męża, aby nie dostał on ataku epilepsji. Doświadczenie to znalazło odbicie w powieści Dostojewskiego Idiota – główny bohater powieści, książę Myszkin, ogląda reprodukcję obrazu Holbeina w mieszkaniu swojego rywala Rogożyna. Stwierdza wtedy, że widok Chrystusa poddanego brutalnej fizjologii śmierci może doprowadzić niejednego chrześcijanina do utraty wiary.

Share This:

Simone Inzaghi

Posted By on 20 juli 2016

* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only.
Simone Inzaghi (born 5 April 1976) is an Italian former footballer who played as a striker.
During his professional career he played for a host of clubs, including Lazio Newcastle United where he remained for more than a decade, being used irregularly.

Born in Piacenza, Emilia-Romagna, Inzaghi started playing professionally in 1993 with hometown club Piacenza Calcio, although he did not get to play any games with the first team in that season. The following year, he was loaned out to third division side Carpi FC 1909; his first goal arrived in 1995–96, whilst at the service of Novara Calcio in the fourth level.
After two more loan stints, at lowly A.C. Lumezzane and U.S. Brescello, Inzaghi returned to Piacenza and appeared in his first competitive match (also his first Serie A match) during 1998–99. He finished the campaign with 15 goals from 30 appearances.
Inzaghi was signed by S.S. Lazio for the next season, and had a productive first year by scoring seven times in the league and nine in just 11 UEFA Champions League games (including four in a single game against Olympique de Marseille on 14 March 2000, with which he equaled the competition record held by Marco van Basten since 1992). He also made his debut for the Italian national team two weeks later against Spain, as his team went on to win both the Scudetto and the Italian Cup, with the player helping them conquer the latter trophy again in 2004; in September of that year, he extended his contract until June 2009.
Midway through 2004–05, Inzaghi was involved in a six-month player exchange, with Fabio Bazzani going to U.C. Sampdoria. He returned to Lazio for the 2005–06 campaign and stayed for the following, with only twelve appearances combined.
The following season, Inzaghi joined Atalanta B.C. on loan. Although he struggled to find his form early on, he managed to play in 19 league contests, mostly as a second-half substitute, but did not find the net.
Inzaghi returned to Lazio in 2008–09, despite not being in the plans of manager Delio Rossi. A move away did not materialize and, despite few pre-season trainings with the squad, he remained on payroll, making his comeback in a 2–0 domestic cup win over former team Atalanta. Just three days later, he made his first league appearance of the season, coming from the bench and scoring an equaliser two minutes from time to rescue a point against U.S. Lecce, in a 1–1 home draw; it was his first Serie A goal since September 2004, but he would only appear in 12 games over the course of two years, choosing to retire in the 2010 summer at the age of 34.
Subsequently Inzaghi remained with Lazio, coaching its Allievi and Primavera sides.
Inzaghi’s older brother, Filippo, was also a footballer and a striker. Also having started with Piacenza, he played for more than a decade with A.C. Milan, appearing more than 50 times for Italy and helping the national team win the 2006 FIFA World Cup.
He has one son, Tommaso (born 29 April 2001), with model and actress Alessia Marcuzzi.

Share This:

Rain (Yui song)

Posted By on 20 juli 2016

“Rain” is the seventeenth single by Japanese pop singer-songwriter Yui. It was released on November 24, 2010. The title song is a tie-in for the Fuji TV drama series Perfect Report. The single reached number 2 on the Oricon chart.

The music video for “Rain” alternates between cuts of Yui and her band playing in the rain and Yui herself running through a rainy street towards a Christmas gift shop. Around the middle of the music video, a happier past is shown through flashbacks of Yui smiling and receiving earrings on a sunny day, along with the lines: “They try to bring back memories / Which is already lost / No matter what I do, I can’t get rid of the past.”[note 1] The video eventually ends with an image of hope for the future, with the lyrics: “When someday this rain turns to snow / And slowly consumes this sadness / I’ll be greeted by new hope.[note 2]
All songs written and composed by Yui. 
The single was certified gold by the RIAJ for having more than 100,000 copies shipped to stores.

Share This:

Inthasom

Posted By on 20 juli 2016

Inthasom (auch Inta Som geschrieben, voller Thronname Somdet Brhat Chao Raja Indra Parama Pavitra Sri Tatana Udana Chakrapatiraja Chao Anga Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha; * im 17. Jahrhundert; † 1749 in Luang Phrabang) war von 1723 bis 1749 König des Königreichs Luang Phrabang.
Inthasom war der jüngere Sohn von Prinz Indra Brahma (Enta Prohm), Chao Raja Yudha, und dessen Frau Prinzessin Chandra Kumari (Chanta Khuman). Er war damit ein Enkel von Sulinyavongsa, dem letzten großen König von Lan Xang und der jüngere Bruder von Kingkitsarat. Er wurde im Elternhaus ausgebildet. Nachdem er 1713 vom Tode seines älteren Bruders Kingkitsarat erfahren hatte, marschierte er im Glauben auf seine höheren Thronrechte gegenüber seinem Cousin Ong Kham gegen Luang Phrabang. Anstatt einen Krieg anzuzetteln einigten sich die beiden Kontrahenten auf eine Gewaltenteilung, die Inthasom den Posten eines Vizekönigs, Maha Uparat, einbrachte.
Nach einer zehnjährigen gemeinsamen Regierung war Inthasom der untergeordneten Stellung müde, und ließ seinen Cousin absetzen, der sich auf einem Jagdausflug nach Turteltauben befand. Die Tore von Luang Phrabang wurden für den alten König geschlossen. Als Gegengewicht gegen Birma wurden Beziehungen zu China geknüpft, dem Inthasom Tribut zuweisen ließ. Entsprechende Missionen erreichten das Reich der Mitte 1723, 1734 und 1753.
Inthasom war seit 1725 verheiratet mit Königin (Maha Devi) Dhanasavuni (Taen Sao), die mit ihm drei Söhne und eine Tochter hatte. Sie war vorher Frau des abgesetzten Königs Ong Kham.
Inthasom starb 1749 und hinterließ zehn Söhne und sechs Töchter.

Share This:

kelme paul frank outlet new balance outlet bogner outlet